The members of the conference, known as the Niagara Movement, assembled in annual meeting at Buffalo, July 11th, 12th and
13th, 1905, congratulate the Negro-Americans on certain undoubted evidences of progress in the last decade, particularly the
increase of intelligence, the buying of property, the checking of crime, the uplift in home life, the advance in literature
and art, and the demonstration of constructive and executive ability in the conduct of great religious, economic and educational
At the same time, we believe that this class of American citizens should protest emphatically and continually against the
curtailment of their political rights. We believe in manhood suffrage; we believe that no man is so good, intelligent or wealthy
as to be entrusted wholly with the welfare of his neighbor.
Liberty: We believe also in protest against the curtailment of our civil rights. All American citizens have the right to equal
treatment in places of public entertainment according to their behavior and deserts.
Opportunity: We especially complain against the denial of equal opportunities to us in economic life; in the rural districts
of the South this amounts to peonage and virtual slavery; all over the South it tends to crush labor and small business enterprises;
and everywhere American prejudice, helped often by iniquitous laws, is making it more difficult for Negro-Americans to earn
a decent living.
Common school education should be free to all American children and compulsory. High school training should be adequately
provided for all, and college training should be the monopoly of no class or race in any section of our common country. We
believe that, in defense of our own institutions, the United States should aid common school education, particularly in the
South, and we especially recommend concerted agitation to this end. We urge an increase in public high school facilities in
the South, where the Negro-Americans are almost wholly without such provisions. We favor well-equipped trade and technical
schools for the training of artisans, and the need of adequate and liberal endowment for a few institutions of higher education
must be patent to sincere well-wishers of the race.
We demand upright judges in courts, juries selected without discrimination on account of color and the same measure of punishment
and the same efforts at reformation for black as for white offenders. We need orphanages and farm schools for dependent children,
juvenile reformatories fox delinquents, and the abolition of the dehumanizing convict-lease system.
Opinion: We note with alarm the evident retrogression in this land of sound public opinion on the subject of manhood rights,
republican government and human brotherhood, arid we pray God that this nation will not degenerate into a mob of boasters
and oppressors, but rather will return to the faith of the fathers, that all men were created free and equal, with certain
We plead for health—for an opportunity to live in decent houses and localities, for a chance to rear our children in
physical and moral cleanliness.
and Labor Unions: We hold up for public execration the conduct of two opposite classes of men: The practice among employers
of importing ignorant Negro-American laborers in emergencies, and then affording them neither protection nor permanent employment;
and the practice of labor unions in proscribing and boycotting and oppressing thousands of their fellow-toilers, simply because
they are black. These methods have accentuated and will accentuate the war of labor and capital, and they are disgraceful
to both sides.
We refuse to allow the impression to remain that the Negro-American assents to inferiority, is submissive under oppression
and apologetic before insults. Through helplessness we may submit, but the voice of protest of ten million Americans must
never cease to assail the ears of their fellows, so long as America is unjust.
Any discrimination based simply on race or color is barbarous, we care not how hallowed it be by custom, expediency or prejudice.
Differences made on account of ignorance, immorality, or disease are legitimate methods of fighting evil, and against them
we have no word of protest; but discriminations based simply and solely on physical peculiarities, place of birth, color of
skin, are relics of that unreasoning human savagery of which the world is and ought to be thoroughly ashamed.
Crow" Cars: We protest against the "Jim Crow" car, since its effect is and must be to make us pay first-class fare for third-class
accommodations, render us open to insults and discomfort and to crucify wantonly our manhood, womanhood and self-respect.
We regret that this nation has never seen fit adequately to reward the black soldiers who, in its five wars, have defended
their country with their blood, and yet have been systematically denied the promotions which their abilities deserve. And
we regard as unjust, the exclusion of black boys from the military and naval training schools.
Amendments: We urge upon Congress the enactment of appropriate legislation for securing the proper enforcement of those articles
of freedom, the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments of the Constitution of the United States.
We repudiate the monstrous doctrine that the oppressor should be the sole authority as to the rights of the oppressed. The
Negro race in America stolen, ravished and degraded, struggling up through difficulties and oppression, needs sympathy and
receives criticism; needs help and is given hindrance, needs protection and is given mob-violence, needs justice and is given
charity, needs leadership and is given cowardice and apology, needs bread and is given a stone. This nation will never stand
justified before God until these things are changed.
Church: Especially are we surprised and astonished at the recent attitude of the church of Christ—of an increase of
a desire to bow to racial prejudice, to narrow the bounds of human brotherhood, and to segregate black men to some outer sanctuary.
This is wrong, unchristian and disgraceful to the twentieth century civilization.
Of the above grievances we do not hesitate to complain, and to complain loudly and insistently. To ignore, overlook, or apologize
for these wrongs is to prove ourselves unworthy of freedom. Persistent manly agitation is the way to liberty, and toward this
goal the Niagara Movement has started and asks the cooperation of all men of all races.
At the same time we want to acknowledge with deep thankfulness the help of our fellowmen from the Abolitionist down to those
who today still stand for equal opportunity and who have given and still give of their wealth and of their poverty for our
And while we are demanding, and ought to demand, and will continue to demand the rights enumerated above, God forbid that
we should ever forget to urge corresponding duties upon our people:
- The duty
The duty to respect the rights of others.
The duty to work.
The duty to obey the laws.
The duty to
be clean and orderly.
The duty to send our children to school.
The duty to respect ourselves, even as we respect others.
complaint and prayer we submit to the American people, and Almighty God.